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Efflorescence includes the water-soluble salts precipitated on the wall by water evaporation. The substance appears with building construction or after the completion of construction on the façade.

There are typically sulfides, particularly Preet (iron sulfide) in bricks. These sulfides are oxidized during burning and produce SO3. SO3 reacts with oxides present in clay, and creates calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium sulfates.

Contents and Papers

Building facades

As the dress poses human personality, building façade in addition to the owner's personality, represents the location of the property and the building application. Building façade is a cultural and identity debate.


In general, the main raw material used in manufacturing clay brick, which is mainly due to the completion of clay deposits, now a special approach to the use of shale and marl less than (Marl) as a raw material for bricks is. The main raw materials used are divided into two groups.

1- Clay

Clay, aluminum silicate juicy. In terms of mineralogy, clay layer consists of a group of silicate minerals Mica clay (illite), the group of kaolin, a fine Klrythay and swelling clays (montmorillonite) is called. Clay particle size less than 2 microns

When talking about floor bricks, different materials are placed before us. Stone, tile, asphalt, parquet, ceramic tiles and carpets are among the carpets that are widely used in buildings.

Technical and qualitative characteristics of each one of them specify their application.

Floor brick is a product that turned into durable products during forming, drying and curing at high temperatures. The raw material of this product is shale rock or ore.

Floor brick based on traffic and weather conditions is classified as follows: